In the light of the modest activity of unselected treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), therapeutic targets and biomarkers are urgently needed. Many attempts have been undertaken to find prognostic and predictive markers in NSCLC. To date only histology, i.e. squamous versus non-squamous, and activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations have entered clinical practice as biomarkers. Excision-repair cross-complementation group I-protein (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M1 (RRM1) and echinoderm microtubule-associated ligand-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) are possible future options as well as genetic signatures. This article covers these relevant matters.
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