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Gastrointestinal Oncology, Stem Cell Transplantation
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Stem Cells in Epithelial Renewal and Cancer of the Intestine

Published Online: June 15th 2012 European Gastroenterology & Hepatology Review, 2011;7(3):154–9
Authors: Annie Ng, Nick Barker
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The recent identification of reliable adult stem cell markers in the intestine has driven major advances in our understanding of stem cell roles in both normal tissue homeostasis and cancer. A principal route to colon cancer initiation is aberrant activation of Wnt signalling activity in long-lived adult stem cells at the crypt base. Tumour-resident stem cell populations within the resulting adenomas are considered likely targets for accumulation of additional mutations, driving a stepwise transition towards invasive carcinoma. These purported cancer stem cell populations have received widespread interest as potential therapeutic targets, fuelling efforts to identify specific biomarkers that facilitate their isolation and/or the development of tailored drugs. Here we review recent advances in (cancer) stem cell biology and highlight the obstacles to translation of this knowledge into therapeutic applications in the clinic.

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