Hysteroscopy is an exploratory method for visualising the uterine cavity. In recent years, it has become an indispensable diagnostic and therapeutic technique in gynaecology. Due to its very high sensitivity, hysteroscopy allows a more conservative management of uterine pathology. The risk of a uterine malignancy increases with the age of the patient and in the presence of vaginal bleeding. Hysteroscopy has become the gold standard for the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. We have also recently found in the literature an increasing number of sarcomas diagnosed by hysteroscopy. Surgical hysteroscopy makes accurate histological diagnosis possible, which in turn facilitates appropriate surgical intervention. In the absence of a previous diagnosis, a second surgical intervention may be required in order to complete the treatment. Hysteroscopy may also facilitate the early diagnosis of uterine malignancies and could improve the prognosis of these patients.
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